Link of DNA in Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor and It’s treatment.
A gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is a rare tumor typically found in the stomach, small intestine, and esophagus. Despite being rare, however, there is significant research surrounding the disease and its causes, specifically related to DNA.
Genetics behind it
Research indicates that GIST is linked to a mutation of a gene known as KIT or platelet-derived growth factor isoform b (PDGFRA). These genes are part of the tyrosine kinase receptor family and are located on chromosomes 4 and 11, respectively. The KIT gene codes for a glycoprotein which acts like a regulatory switch to the metabolism of cells in the GIST tumors- lesions. As a result, this mutation can cause a variety of downstream effects.
Targeting the signaling pathway
First, a KIT mutation can affect secondary signaling pathways- for instance, it can lead to the over-expression of specific proteins called constitutively activated proteins. These proteins are able to bind to growth factors and induce uncontrolled cell growth- which leads to tumor growth and metastasis. Abnormal activity of the pathways can also lead to the formation of release factors and their respective genomic rearrangements, some of which can further increase the chances of uncontrollable tumor growth.
Possibility of an impactful gene expression
Second, the mutation can lead to the alteration of protein structure and stability in the GIST cells. This could make the cells more susceptible to external cytotoxic agents and/or predispose them to malignant progression. Moreover, it increases the possibility of rearrangement and the subsequent impact on gene expression.
Development of genetically ordered tumors
Furthermore, the KIT mutation is also believed to be linked to the formation of the genetic pathways that control the release of chromatin remodeling factors. Chromatin remodeling factors are responsible for altering genes’ expression, which could play a role in the development of GIST tumors.
Controlling cell cycle progression
In addition, the KIT gene is a major mediator in the control of cell cycle progression within the GI tract. When mutated, this gene can lead to defects in the cell cycle control which, in turn, enhances tumorigenesis due to uncontrolled cell growth.
Insight into sunitinib 50 mg
Sunitinib 50mg, or Sutent, is an oral anti-angiogenic tyrosine kinase inhibitor used for treating a variety of different types of cancers. Sunitinib belongs to a group of drugs called tyrosine kinase inhibitors which work by blocking the activity of certain enzymes in the cells of cancer tumors. It works by inhibiting tumor blood vessel growth, which stops cancer from spreading.
Use of sunitinib 50 mg
Sunitinib 50mg uses include the treatment of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) and advanced renal cell carcinomas. It has also been approved for use in other types of cancers, such as pancreatic, endometrial, and thyroid cancers. Sunitinib is also used to treat metastatic soft tissue sarcomas and Kaposi’s sarcoma.
Dose of its administration
Sunitinib is usually taken orally at a dosage of 50mg. It is usually taken once daily with or without food, depending on the patient’s condition and/or the prescription. Patients should take Sunitinib exactly as it is prescribed by their doctor.
Effects to be taken into consideration with precaution
Adverse effects associated with Sunitinib include fatigue, nausea, vomiting, mouth sores, diarrhea, anemia, low white blood cell count, and increased liver enzyme levels. Other more serious side effects that occur less frequently are decreased kidney function, congestive heart failure, and a decrease in the production of red blood cells.
Tolerated effects giving positive results
Sunitinib capsule has been shown to be highly effective at treating and preventing cancer growth when taken correctly. Studies have shown that it has had positive results in metastatic soft tissue sarcomas and in other types of cancers as well. Sunitinib is generally well tolerated, although patients should be aware of the potential side effects listed above.
Aware of the effects after consultation with doctor
Sunitinib 50mg is an effective oral therapy for treating GISTs and advanced renal cell carcinomas. It can also be used to treat other types of cancers with positive results. Although there can be serious side effects, if taken correctly, Sunitinib is usually well tolerated by patients. It is important to take Sunitinib exactly as prescribed by a doctor and to be aware of the potential side effects.
Overall, DNA plays a significant role in the development of Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors (GIST). This is evidenced by the fact that the KIT and PDGFRA gene mutations can lead to downstream effects including altered protein structure and stability, chromosomal rearrangement, increased cell growth, and defective cell cycle progression. Clearly, understanding the genetic basis of GIST is essential for the development of effective treatments.